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‘Ask with lightness, encourage without forcing, correct with softness’
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Buying a Horse Part 2 Selecting


 

 


I have never lost sight of one fact that was hammered into me long ago by horsemen I respect "The quality of your horse determines; the safety, enjoyment and heights you will reach".  Compromise; Trust the results of an Evaluation/Assessment when you make a purchase and nine times out of ten, you have just compromised your goal.  As you know if you have ever shopped for a horse there are many variables you have to consider, not the least of which is price.  Yet no matter how cheap or expensive a horse might be, I've found I make my best choices by sticking with one hard and fast rule; "If I have talked myself into liking a horse and he doesn't meets my goals, or if he doesn't make me say "Wow the first time I lay eyes on him or her, I walk away and keep looking.  Beyond that, here's how I'd advise you if you came to me for help in buying a horse.  


Before deciding what type of horse to purchase, perhaps it is best to consider whether to purchase any horse.  The time it takes to care for an animal, the facilities needed, the knowledge needed for caring for a horse, and the money to pay for all the maintenance of the animal are all important considerations. There are numerous alternatives to owning a horse such as taking lessons, renting a horse at camps or parks, and leasing a horse and boarding it elsewhere.  Consider the circumstances when selecting a horse. If the primary user is inexperienced, then disposition, soundness, and training become the most important factors. If the owner is investing in breeding stock or performance prospects, then the pedigree and performance records are crucial.  If the horse's previous training was based on cues rather than horse-logical rider pressures and the horse's previous handlers have not shared those cues with you, you may discover that the horse's training is somewhat limited.  Prior to purchasing or riding any horse ask yourself what training you can reasonably expect this horse to understand based on any history you have available and a proper assessment/evaluation. This is particularly important if you are trying out a sale horse that is untrained, green, trained or before beginning to work with a "problem" horse.  It is just as important if you are borrowing a friend's horse for a trail ride and want to judge how well you and the horse will be able to communicate.  One of the goals of your first ride is to discover the range and the limits of the horse's training. That is the foundation you will have to build on as the two of you begin working together.  If the decision has been made to purchase a horse, this article should help you evaluate the criteria for selecting an animal for an enjoyable, safe and affordable first experience with horse ownership.


Reason for the purchase
The first decision must relate to the reason the horse is being purchased:

 

  • Professional Use or Investment - If the horse is an investment, then the personal experience of the buyer may not be as critical as the knowledge and experience of the advisor. If the horse is a young race or show prospect, or a breeding animal, it will be managed by a professional horseman. Investors should not pretend that they can manage breeding animals or train performance horses without extensive experience in these areas. Investing in horses is risky business. Although there are some shining success stories, the odds of making enough money to pay the bills and get any return on the investment are very poor. Be cautious with the first investments, and be sure that the advisor, breeder, or trainer involved has respected credentials and is someone who is trusted. 
  • Personal Recreation - If the horse is intended for personal recreation for yourself or the family, then the ability of the horse to cooperatively perform for all members of the family is essential. Owners eventually want to care for the horse themselves, so the disposition, training, and soundness is important. Also, the recreation animal should be considered like any other form of recreation: money spent is done so for enjoyment and not expected to net a financial return. The upkeep of the animal in money and time is ongoing and much different than buying a boat or a set of golf clubs. Selecting the right horse that owners can enjoy working with daily is the key to finding continued recreation from the horse.  The following criteria must be prioritized differently for each situation. There may be additional criteria uniquely important to you.


Experience with Horses

Experienced horse people may purchase a young horse successfully if they have the skills and knowledge needed to train the horse. Inexperienced owners and young horses are a dangerous combination. The best horse for a novice owner to use is a mature animal that is well-trained and accustomed to the variety of situations.  If the owner intends to pay someone else to board or train the horse, then the owner's expertise is not as critical; however, they may not enjoy the horse as much once they bring the horse home. Be sure to take into consideration the primary user. Just because an adult can make the horse obey, does not mean that a six year old child can enjoy the horse safely.


Expected Use
The type of horse purchased determines how easily it can perform the intended use.

  • - Any type of quiet horse will work for a trail and pleasure horse as long as it is sound (physically capable of performing). A trained, relaxed, mannerly horse that has a prompt, flat-footed walk will be best for trail riding. 
  • - If a horse is being purchased for show purposes, then the quality and type become more important. Western horses tend to be lower headed, quiet, and most often heavier muscled than the English horses. Hunters have longer, flatter strides and move forward with more impulsion and a higher head carriage than western horses. English or saddle type horses tend to be much higher headed, with their neck coming higher out of their withers. They move with more hock and knee elevation. Success in the show ring directly results from the horse's breed type and ability to perform. The type of horse selected should be based on the type of show situation. 
  • such as polo horses, dressage, reining, cutting, and roping horses need more specialized training and qualities. These skills make the horse higher priced because more training needs to be invested in them. Success in these activities is a function of athletic ability and training rather than a specific breed of horse. 
  • should be reserved for those horses of a quality that can improve the breed or type. If the primary purpose of the purchased horse is to breed, then the success of the ancestors in the horse's pedigree and the horse's own performance record is important. Purchasing quality breeding stock is expensive, and the outcome of breeding horses is unpredictable, so spend as much as possible to obtain truly superior mares. Purchasing a breeding stallion should only be done for income purposes, and only the very best (top 5 percent) of the horses should stand as sires.


Soundness
Horses must be sound enough to perform the expected activities. Horses that are lame in their movement may have permanent problems that will limit the performance or make it inhumane to use the horse. Horses with blemishes (scars or marks that do not interfere with their movement) should be less valuable as show horses, but blemishes should not be a consideration with breeding or pleasure horses. Horses should also be sound in their breathing, vision, and reproductive capacity if for breeding. A soundness examination should be done if much money is being spent or if a doubt exists. The more athletic the horse has to be, the more sound it must be. A race or competitive show or event horse must be very strong and sound. Pleasure trail horses and backyard horses must be sound enough to perform the expected activity, even if not perfectly. Soundness should always be measured in light of the expected performance of the horse.


Grade or Registered
Grade or nonregistered horses or ponies can be successfully used as trail, pleasure, and performance horses. Resale value will be greater for registered horses (those belonging to a specific breed with known ancestors).  Safety, lightness, softness, disposition and comfort of a recreational horse should be the most important criteria for you, don't overlook a valuable grade horse. If the purpose is to produce foals, then only registered horses should be used. Many performance competitions such as dressage, reining, competitive trail riding, and combined training events do not require registered horses. One can often buy a registered horse as cheaply as a grade horse and the resale value is much greater. Open and 4-H shows provide excellent areas for the nonregistered horses to compete. If you are interested in participating in breed shows, races, or other activities, owning a horse of that breed should be a priority.


Breed of Horse
The breed will dictate to some extent the activities and performance abilities of the horse.

  • Usually the Saddlebred, Morgan, Arabian, and saddle-type Pintos lend themselves to the conformation and action to do well in English or Western.
  • Tennessee Walking Horses, Missouri Fox Trotters, Paso Finos, Peruvian Pasos, and Racking horses do not trot. They are very comfortable for trail riding and showing in breed events, normally will they not be competitive in English, Western or Hunter classes requiring a walk, trot, and canter. 
  • Most hunters are of breeds including Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, European warm-blooded breeds, and ponies like Welsh and Connemara. Western event horses most often are the stock-type breeds (Appaloosa, Buckskin, Paint, Palomino, stock- type Pinto, and Quarter Horse). Western ponies include the Pony of the Americas (POA), and Welsh.
  • Race horses are bred to trot, pace, or gallop. All harness-race horses either trot or pace and are Standardbreds. Horses that are ridden and gallop are most frequently in the United States Thoroughbreds.

All breeds of horses can be calm/quiet horses as well as anxious/dangerous horses. The genetics, handling, training styles can affect the softness and lightness of a horse more than does the breed.

Size of rider and Horse
The horse is capable of carrying a tremendous amount of weight. The only time the relative size of the rider and the horse is important is when showing, then the suitability of horse to rider becomes an issue. Small children are better off on quite dispositional large horses than on small ponies that can be more difficult to handle.  Likewise, a small, quite pony may be ideal for some; however the child will likely outgrow this mount. A rider's leg ought to fit down the sides of the horse's side in order to give leg cues (signals to the horse), but not be so long that the leg from the knee down does not touch the ribs. Most adults would do well to buy horses (over 58 inches at the top of the withers). As long as the mount is quiet enough for the child to work around and mount, the size of the animal should be considered secondary.

Age of Rider and Horse
Basically, the younger the rider the older the horse needed. This is a function of training, calmness, and experience that comes with an older horse rather than with age itself. For a novice rider, it would be rare to find a horse under five that is trained and quite enough. Horses live to be 25 to 30 years of age, so the purchase of a 6 to 12 year old is wise for amateurs and novice. Older riders or those with more expertise and experience can buy, handle and train yearlings or two year olds. These young horses do not make predictable mounts for beginners.

Training
The willingness of a horse to respond to the handler's cues is a result of training. Horses that have "been around some" increase in value for the beginner. As more intricate maneuvers are desired for higher levels of competition, the more training is needed. Sometimes, highly tuned horses are so responsive to the riders' cues that the novice confuses the horse and gets no response. It is also possible to have a horse trained to the point that you get more response than you want, ie. too fast a spin, too quick a start, too hard a stop, and the rider gets hurt. Adequate training for the intended use combined with an experienced disposition is important.

Gender
Mares and geldings (castrated males) should be the only good choices for horsemen with limited experience. Mares often look more refined and prettier, but can have dramatic behaviour changes when in estrus. Geldings are often quieter and more consistent but more difficult to show in halter classes. The only reason to own a stallion is to either breed mares or performance test a potential breeding stallion. Sires in the horse industry should be of superior quality and have successful performance records. Only those able to improve the breed should be bred. Nonregistered males should be gelded within the first ten months of life to minimize stress on the horse and handlers.

Disposition and Vices
Softness is the natural characteristic of the horses mind and lightness is what we actual see; it is the way the horse communicates through movement and they express their feelings emotionally.  Softness and Lightness is genetic; it is an absolute must to preserve them because they may be changed negatively with training, handling and/or riding.  If they are not preserved the results that are human created issues!  Some issues can be resolved by small changes in management, others need time and retraining.  Typical issues include:

  • Lack of Education Proper Education or Poor Education - Holes in the Basic and Essential Foundation Training
  • Misunderstood – Softness and Lightness not maintained during handling, training & riding
  • Interrupted/Inconsistent Education
  • Conflicting Education and Signals
  • Environment, Stress and Boredom
  • Change. - Any changes (e.g. location, herd members, box location, box neighbors, owner, rider) can potentially disturb a horse, resulting in changes to its behavior.
  • Nutrition
  • Neglect, Abuse, Accidents
  • Anxieties and Phobias.  Separation anxiety, nervousness, fear of people, objects, places or other animals.
  • Handling.  Leading, catching, pulling back when tied up, difficulty picking up feet, head shyness, bathing, grooming, tacking up, biting when girthed, refusal to stand for the vet, farrier or to be clipped. 
  • Stereotypes.  Crib-biting, weaving, box-walking, tongue-lolling, head bobbing, head shaking, wind-sucking, pawing, digging, fence walking, wall kicking, self mutilation.
  •  Aggression.  Towards humans, other horses or animals - nipping, biting, charging, striking out and kicking.  
  • Riding.  Refusal to stand for mounting, non-acceptance of tack, napping, bucking, rearing, bolting, spooking, failure to go forward, refusing to jump. 
  • Trailer Loading.  Refusal to load into a trailer or wagon, anxiety when travelling or at the showground, difficulty Learned Behavior

The less experienced owners should try to select horses with minimal bad habits and vices. Good disposition, temperament, lightness and softness should be at the top of the priority list. 

Facilities
Housing for horses must be safe and adequate to contain the type of horses selected. Build or select housing that is suitable to the type of horse needed, rather than selecting an animal that can be housed conveniently. If the facilities are not available, then board the horse elsewhere or don't buy one. Facilities should not be a priority when selecting a horse.

Price
The buyer determines the price that will be paid for a horse. The performance record, the breed type and conformation, the pedigree and the degree of advertising will influence the price. Realize that regardless of how much you spend to purchase the horse, you will spend $60 to $400 or more per month keeping the horse. Horses do not appreciate with age, rather they depreciate. Don't expect to get everything out of the horse that you put into it financially. The value of horses can be increased with training and subsequent race or show success. Put priority on the criteria that are important to the expected use of the horse. Don't pay extra for pretty if that is not the most important criteria for your use.  Most horse owners have their first horse less than three years. Either they gain interest and expertise and want to get a nicer horse, or they loose interest and get out of the horse business. Purchase a horse with the plan of selling it in three to four years, or plan to care for the horse until it dies. The nicer and more appropriate horse you can buy, the better the resale value.

Adopting Wild Horses
Seldom does this alternative prove to be a good one for first time horse owners. It may sound as if you are buying a piece of the American wild west, but the natural "wild" instincts of these wild horses and burros are very strong. Only yearlings and occasionally two year olds should be considered because they are not as set in their ways as the older horses. This usually means that the new owner will work with the horse or burro for one or two years before they can be ridden. A lot of them have been kept in large groups of horses and have very little exposure to humans. They are often underdeveloped for their age and take a lot of extra patience, discipline, and training to be useful.  Experienced horsemen could consider adopting horses if they have the expertise and energy to invest in a project horse. The horses are of very mixed breeding and seldom do you find a refined, quality animal in the group. Even when properly trained, the horses are seldom suitable for show purposes.  It is a worthy cause to want to adopt these gathered-up wild horses, but the low adoption and transporting expenses should be balanced with the likelihood of a successful experience. For the money, purchasing domestically raised horses represents less risk, but it does not include the emotional benefit of adopting a wild horse or burro from the public rangelands of American West.

Conclusion
Horse ownership can be a very rewarding experience if the appropriate horse is selected. The criteria discussed here should be prioritized for your situation and situations change with time. As experience is gained and interest grows (or changes) different types of horses will be needed. Don't hesitate to find help when deciding on what type of horse is right for you. Evaluate thoroughly whether you should obtain any horse at all. Regardless of the horse selected, consistent and proper management is vital to maintain the animal. Horse ownership is a big responsibility, and the more knowledge you can continually gain, the more rewarding your experience.